Jean Piaget developed a theory of cognitive development (1935) which explains how a child constructs a mental model of the world. He disagreed with the idea that intelligence was a fixed trait, and regarded cognitive development as a process which occurs due to biological maturation and interaction with the environment.
Jean Piaget’s take on learning, viewed as a modification in the state of knowledge, coherently integrates itself in the group of piagetian research on the subject of intelligence development.
What Piaget wanted to do was not to measure how well children could count, spell or solve problems as a way of grading their I.Q. What he was more interested in was the way in which fundamental concepts like the very idea of number, time, quantity, causality, justice and so on emerged.
Before Piaget’s work, the common assumption in psychology was that children are merely less competent thinkers than adults. Piaget showed that young children think in strikingly different ways compared to adults.
According to Piaget (buy his books from Amazon), children are born with a very basic mental structure (genetically inherited and evolved) on which all subsequent learning and knowledge are based.
The Cognitive Theory
There are three basic components to Piaget’s cognitive theory:
1. Schemas – Building blocks of knowledge
2. Adaptation processes that enable the transition from one stage to another:
- Concrete operational
- Formal operational
Imagine what it would be like if you did not have a mental model of your world. It would mean that you would not be able to make so much use of information from your past experience or to plan future actions.
Schemas are the basic building blocks of such cognitive models, and enable us to form a mental representation of the world. Piaget (1952) defined a schema as:
In more simple terms Piaget called the schema the basic building block of intelligent behavior – a way of organizing knowledge. Indeed, it is useful to think of schemas as “units” of knowledge, each relating to one aspect of the world, including objects, actions, and abstract (i.e., theoretical) concepts.
Wadsworth (2004) suggests that schemata (the plural of schema) be thought of as ‘index cards’ filed in the brain, each one telling an individual how to react to incoming stimuli or information.
When Piaget (buy his books from Amazon) talked about the development of a person’s mental processes, he was referring to increases in the number and complexity of the schemata that a person had learned.
Intelligence means adaptation, in Piaget’s view. The onthogenetic evolution of intelligence is seen as a preogressive construction which depends on both internal factors (the specific capabilities of the individual) and external factors (the characteristics of the environment in which the human being progresses).
Jean Piaget (1952) viewed intellectual growth as a process of adaptation (adjustment) to the world. This happens through:
This is the force which moves development along. Piaget believed that cognitive development did not progress at a steady rate, but rather in leaps and bounds.
Equilibrium occurs when a child’s schemas can deal with most new information through assimilation. However, an unpleasant state of disequilibrium occurs when new information cannot be fitted into existing schemas (assimilation).
Equilibration is the force which drives the learning process as we do not like to be frustrated and will seek to restore balance by mastering the new challenge (accommodation). Once the new information is acquired the process of assimilation with the new schema will continue until the next time we need to make an adjustment to it.
Stages of Cognitive Development
Period: 0/18 months – 2 years old
The child’s intelligence is rooted in action and perception. He is absorbing all the information through sensing. in the course of this period decentering occurs. The main aquisition of the child is object permanence – the child’s capacity of representing objects even in their absence.
- Substage of symbolic and preconceptual thinking
- Substage of intuitive thinking
In the substage of symbolic and preconceptual thinking a fundamental function is installed, which consists of the possibility to represent a “significant” using a symbol.
- Egocentrism – prisoner of his own perspective
- Centering – orienting to a single characteristics and ignoring the others
- The mixing of reality with imaginary fantasies
- Ireversibility – the inability to reverse mental operations
Period: 7/8 – 11/12 years old
The child gradually observes the conservation of substance, weight and volume. Operational groupings are illustrated by logical-mathematical equations, of classifications, constructing numbers, all of them being named concrete operations.
In this period, the thinking of the child will liberate itself of the concrete. Formal thinking is a hypotethical-deductive reasoning which allows for the examination of consequences which derive from:
- liberating relations from order and series;
- liberating classifications of their concrete, intuitive links.
The great merit of the Piagetian theory is that it showed the way in which intelligence develops and the fact that is has its origin in the sensorimotor interactions with the environment even before language acquisition. The operational structures of intelligence are not inborn, they are being elaborated until approximately the end of the first two decades of life.
The theory is both constructivist and genetical, dealing with the steps required for intelligence to develop and, also, explaining the genesis and evolution of the cognitive processes.
Sigmund Freud is regarded as the father of psychodynamic theories, the founder of psychoanalysis and the creator of psychosexual stages theory of human development. Regardless of the acceptance or disapproval of his ideas about human development, his influence over psychology was enormous. During a puritan era he managed to construct a theory of unconscious motivation, of human sexuality and instinctual aggression.
The American psychologist Jerome S. Bruner, strongly influenced by the work of Russian psychologist Lev Vygostky, further developed and applied his ideas in the field of education. Bruner declared that Vygotsky has convinced him about the impossibility of understanding the concept of human development in any other way than as a process of assistance, of collaboration between child and adult, where the adult is taking up the role of a sociocultural mediator. Due to its distinct features, we consider the theory to be a sociocultural constructivist one.
Inspired by the sociocognitive approaches to learning, Rolland Viau proposes an innovative motivation model in the context of acquiring information and completing goals.
Although the model has been initially designed for the learning student, its structures can be just as easily and successfully applied to any situation where an individual is faced with a challenge and a need to be completing a goal.
Erikson was a stage theorist who took Freud’s controversial theory of psychosexual development and modified it as a psychosocial theory, as he rejected the central importance of the sexual drive in favour of the progressive emergence of identity. Like Freud and many others, Erik Erikson maintained that personality develops in a predetermined order, and builds upon each previous stage. This is called the epigenetic principle.
The work of Lev Vygotsky (1934) has become the foundation of much research and theory in cognitive development over the past several decades, particularly of what has become known as Social Development Theory.
Vygotsky’s theories stress the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition (Vygotsky, 1978), as he believed strongly that community plays a central role in the process of “making meaning.”
Attribution enables the individual to explain his own behaviours and those of others, to interpret what is happening around him and to search for plausible causes that determine an event or action. Attribution Theory must explain the occurrence of certain cognitions using inference, thus reaching a conclusion on the basis of evidence and reasoning, using behaviour as a starting point.