The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders: 5th Edition, text revision (DSM-5-TR) classifies anxiety disorders into several main types.In previous editions of the DSM-5-TR, anxiety disorders included obsessive-compulsive disorder
(OCD) and post-traumatic stress disorder
(PTSD), as well as acute stress disorder
. However, the manual no longer groups
these mental health difficulties under anxiety.Anxiety disorders now include the following:
This chronic disorder involves excessive, long-lasting anxiety and worries about nonspecific life events, objects, and situations
. GAD is the most common anxiety disorder, and people with it are not always able to identify the cause of their anxiety.
Panic disorder Brief or sudden attacks of intense terror and apprehension characterize this panic disorder
. These attacks can lead to shaking, confusion, dizziness, nausea, and breathing difficulties
. Panic attacks tend to occur and escalate rapidly.Panic disorders usually occur after frightening experiences or prolonged stress
but may also occur without a trigger.
Specific phobia This is a fear and avoidance of a particular object or situation
. Phobias are not like other anxiety disorders, as they relate to a specific cause
.A person with a phobia might acknowledge fear as illogical or extreme but remain unable to control feelings of anxiety around the trigger
. Triggers for a phobia range from situations and animals to everyday objects.
Agoraphobia This is a fear and avoidance of places, events, or situations from which it may be difficult to escape or where help would not be available in emergencies
.People often misunderstand
this condition as a phobia of open spaces and the outdoors. A person with agoraphobia may fear leaving home or using elevators and public transport.
Selective mutism Some children experience this form of anxiety, in which they cannot speak in certain places or contexts, even though they may have excellent verbal communication skills around familiar people
Social anxiety disorder This is a fear of adverse judgment from others in social situations or of public embarrassment
. Social anxiety disorder includes a range of feelings
, such as stage fright, a fear of intimacy, and anxiety around humiliation and rejection
Separation anxiety disorder High anxiety levels after separation from a person or place that provides feelings of security or safety characterize separation anxiety disorder
. Separation anxiety is most common
in young children but can affect people of all ages.