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The Shadow: Archetype Anatomy

The shadow as a concept comprises everything the conscious personality experiences as negative. The shadow, Id, or shadow archetype refers to an unconscious aspect of the personality which the conscious ego does not identify in itself.

In dreams and fantasies the shadow appears with the characteristics of a personality of the same sex as the ego, but in a very different configuration.

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Collective Unconscious: Dissecting the concept

The term collective unconscious was originally coined by Swiss psychologist Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) and has been elaborately explained in his book Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious. It represents a form of the unconscious ( the part of the mind containing memories and impulses of which the individual is not aware) common to mankind as a specie and it originates in inherited structures of the psyche, passed on from generation to generation.

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Individuation process: Bring to light your True Self

In Jungian psychology, also called analytical psychology, individuation is the process where the individual self develops out of an undifferentiated unconscious – seen as a developmental psychic process during which innate elements of personality, the components of the immature psyche, and the experiences of the person’s life become, if the process is more or less successful, integrated over time into a well-functioning whole. Other psychoanalytic theorists describe it as the stage where an individual transcends group attachment and narcissistic self-absorption.

Collage Artwork used as featured image for Robert Plutchik's Theroy of Emotions

Robert Plutchik’s Theory of Emotion

Robert Plutchik proposed a psychoevolutionary classification approach for general emotional responses. He considered there to be eight primary emotions—anger, fear, sadness, disgust, surprise, anticipation, trust, and joy. Plutchik argues for the primacy of these emotions by showing each to be the trigger of behaviour with high survival value, such as the way fear inspires the fight-or-flight response.

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Paul Ekman’s Theory of Emotion

The framework described by Paul Ekman is influenced by Charles Darwin and Silvan Solomon Tomkins, although he himself stated that he did not accept in tot what either of them said. Ekman sustained there are three meanings for the term “basic” as you can read his argumentation in the article.

Ekman considers that emotional expressions are crucial to the development and regulation of interpersonal relationships. His studies demonstrated that facial expressions play an important role in the formation of attachments and are involved in the formation, acceleration or deceleration of aggressive behaviour. 

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The James-Lange Theory of Emotions

William James, known as the father of American Psychology, developed along with his 19th Century fellow psychologist Carl Lange the James-Lange theory which considers that environmental events lead to the apparition of muscular and visceral responses, and that these responses eventually determine emotions. Instead of feeling an emotion and subsequent physiological (bodily) response, the theory proposes that the physiological change is primary, and emotion is after that experienced, as the brain reacts to the information received via the body’s nervous system.

The emotion follows the behaviour, and does not determine it.

Theories of Emotion in Psychology: Quick Guide featured image - Matt Cunningham Art

Theories of Emotion in Psychology: Quick Guide

Emotion represents a complex of affective states that implies conscious or unconscious experiences which lead to psychological responses that either inhibit or facilitate the motivation of behaviour.

Emotions exert an incredibly powerful force on human behavior. Strong emotions can cause you to take actions you might not normally perform or to avoid situations you enjoy. Why exactly do we have emotions? What causes us to have these feelings?

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4 Most Effective Mindfulness Exercises

People who meditate are happier, healthier, and more successful than those who don’t.

The amazing benefits of practicing meditation and mindfulness are available to everyone who has the time to practice these skills. We dedicate this article to presenting the most effective and easy-to-practice mindfulness exercises. We strongly encourage you to try them out for at least several weeks for optimal benefits.

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Contemporary Mindfulness Preconceptions

Mindfulness is the psychological process of bringing one’s attention to experiences occurring in the present moment, which one can develop through the practice of meditation and through other training. Mindfulness is derived from sati, a significant element of Buddhist traditions, and based on Zen, Vipassanā, and Tibetan meditation techniques.

Clinical psychology and psychiatry since the 1970s have developed a number of therapeutic applications based on mindfulness for helping people experiencing a variety of psychological conditions.

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Buddhism and Modern Psychology

Buddhism and Modern Psychology have multiple parallels and points of overlap. This includes a descriptive phenomenology of mental states, emotions and behaviors as well as theories of perception and unconscious mental factors.
Buddhism includes an analysis of human psychology, emotion, cognition, behaviour and motivation along with therapeutic practices. A unique feature of Buddhist psychology is that it is embedded within the greater Buddhist ethical and philosophical system, and its psychological terminology is coloured by ethical overtones.

Psychotherapists such as Erich Fromm have found in Buddhist enlightenment experiences the potential for transformation, healing and finding existential meaning.

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